SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
- The principal acids of wine are tartaric and malic.
- Volatile acidity (undesirable) is due to acetic acid (vinegar).
- Cool climate grapes have high acid and low sugar.
- Warm climate grapes have low acid and high sugar.
- The malolactic fermentation can be used to lower acidity of wine.
- Total acidity is reported as grams of tartaric acid per 100 mL of wine.
- Table wines generally have a total acidity of 0.6 to 0.7%.
- Sweet white dessert wines generally have a total acidity above 1% to balance the sugar.
- pH is a measure of “active” acidity.
- The lower the pH, the higher the acidity; the higher the pH, the lower the acidity.
- Table wines generally have a pH between 3.3 and 3.7.